SCARCITY OF WATER IN PAKISTAN
(Article by : Syed Nabeel Hassan Sherazi)
(Dr. Muhammad Yaseen Department of Agricultural Extension, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha )
According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Pakistan is ranked third in the countries experiencing the highest water shortage. In May 2018, the Pakistan Council for Water Research (PCRWR) announced that by 2025, there will be little or no clean water in the country (Shukla 2018). It should be noted that while capita per capita availability in the 1950s was approximately 5000 m3 per year, it has now decreased to less than 1000 m3, which is a major cause of global water shortages (Aziz et al. 2018). Currently, only 20% of the country’s population has access to safe drinking water. The remaining 80?pends on contaminated water contaminated by sewage (fecal, total number of colonies, E. Coli colonies), and secondly by fertilizers, pesticides, and industrial equipment (Daud et al. 2017; Sahoutara 2017). Such water pollution is responsible for approximately 80% of all infections and 30% of deaths (Daud et al. 2017). In a dry pipe, a single E bacterium. Coli can multiply to billions in a week (Ebrahim 2017), and those pipes are used to supply water without receiving treatment. Using this contaminated water has not only resulted in several deaths, but also causes arthritis and dental disease, diarrhea, diarrhea, typhoid, hepatitis, cancer and other water borne diseases (Daud et al. 2017). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), desert waterborne diseases cause more than 2 million deaths a year, globally, with most occurring in children under five years of age (WHO 2018).
In Pakistan, approximately 60 million people are at risk of being exposed to high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water; the largest poisoning in history (Guglielmi 2017). Arsenic poisoning can cause cancer, moderate pulmonary disease, skin ulcers, heart problems, diabetes, neurological disorders, and problems in the endocrine glands, immune system, liver, kidney, and otherwise, as well as social and economic risks (Rahman et al 2018). Unfortunately, however, no data on arsenic toxicity, other drinking water, and health interventions are available to at-risk populations.
Considering the drought-related deaths of nearly 1832 children in the last 4 years (Stephen’s Staff Reporter 2018), drying ponds (Ali 2015), rivers (Channa 2010), dropping the water table, excessive water use, lack of machine storage , population explosion, and climate change are ensuring more serious attention (Kirby 2018). In addition, lack of national clean water policy, lack of state and federal government agencies, water conflicts between Pakistan and India (Kirby 2018), deforestation, potential threat to the country’s sovereign slums (Nabi et al. 2017, 2018), and water scarcity will have an adverse effect on agriculture, the environment and biodiversity. Wildlife has already entered the red zone (Shaikh 2018) and could turn into a human problem with the risk of large-scale regional migration due to drought-like conditions. We have recommended specific proposals that can help the people of Pakistan to overcome water shortages and pollution, conserve the environment, improve agriculture and conserve local ecosystems.
- National Sound Water Policy: National Active Water Policy and management are required to conserve and consolidate water resources, reduce wastewater pollution, and improve water supply across the country through appropriate sanitation facilities.
- Switch to bottled drinking water: Although this seems expensive, but to keep an eye on the high concentration of arsenic (50 μg / L) (Guglielmi 2017), fecal, bacteria and other contaminants in drinking water (Sahoutara 2017), it’s time to switch to bottled drinking water. Contaminated water can be used for other household chores. Specifically, this will bring public attention to water pollution and environmental conservation.
- Construction dams: Both large and small dams are required, but every effort must be made to reduce their social and environmental costs through human movement and shock to the existing ecosystem. Therefore, small dams with low environmental and social costs should be prioritized for their water use for drinking, agriculture, electricity and fishing. It will also contribute to the conservation of marine and other animal species, especially during migratory periods. Instead of many dams under consideration (Qureshi and Akıntug 2014), the authors report that hundreds of dams could be built in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, which is rich in biodiversity and in the world and could also help conservation. By providing shelter and flood protection.
- Deforestation: Within a year, Pakistan loses approximately 2.1% of its forests. If this level continues, Pakistan will disappear in the forests for the next 50 years (Randhawa 2017). Therefore, deforestation and management in Pakistan are urgently needed and will help bring rainfall, stability, temperature, pollution and saturation. It will also help to control the ongoing flooding and will provide a suitable habitat for biodiversity.
- Air-conditioned cars: There are hundreds of thousands of car washrooms in Pakistan. They not only consume large amounts of clean water for cleaning, but also endanger public health, biodiversity and environmental pollution by polluting rivers and the environment. Switching to a steam-based car wash system will not only maintain clean water but also reduce water and environmental pollution.
- Artificial Rain: Like China, Pakistan needs a rainfall network across the country. This will help to solve water shortages, protect the environment, reduce natural disasters and conserve biodiversity. China is developing the world’s worst climate change program with tens of thousands of firefighting rooms. The program will increase rainfall over one million square kilometers (Chen 2018). In friendly relations, and with the execution of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), Pakistan could help establish this technology in Pakistan.
- Methods of reducing the level line: Currently, India holds the waters of the river Pakistani assigned to Pakistan under the agreement of the 1960 Indus Waters with the help of the World Bank (News Desk 2018). Constructive bilateral discussions that can help you address water scarcity and the threat of biodiversity and procurement.
- Installation of low-quality water filters: The introduction of large-scale low-quality filters across the country and especially in contaminated areas can provide safe drinking water to poor people who cannot afford expensive bottled water.
- Preservation of regional Crystals: Without Polarity, Pakistan inezinamba very high glaciers (> 7200) than any other country (Khan 2017). Unfortunately, they are melting faster than other parts of the world by the year 2035, the world will have to freeze ice again (Dawn 2013). In addition, with the execution of CPEC, the amount of black carbon (Nabi et al. 2017) will be blown away by the skies that will improve the flow. Therefore, we need national program for the management of the glacier ice. The impact of glaciers can be alleviated by allowing only electric vehicles on nearby roads, providing solar energy systems to local residents, PLANTING SITES, and controlling greenhouse gasses.
- Returns the pools. Pakistan has 60 lakes and most of them are heavily polluted. Due to land pollution, only in Manchar Lake; In Asia's largest freshwater lakes, 14 species of fish have passed away (Ebrahim 2015). Restoring these lakes will provide a better environment for biodiversity, improve environmental and agricultural resilience, and lake-based water.
- Control of drilling wells: Due to the increase in population, the need for increased water supply. Whether for domestic, commercial or agricultural use, there has been uncontrolled use of tube wells across the country where people extract as much water as they please. As a result of this practice, there has been a significant increase in the number of tube wells due to the fact that the water table is falling in many parts of the country. Therefore, the use of a strict policy is necessary to control the amount of tube wells. In addition, in the overcrowded region, mental regeneration can help improve the water table.
- Information: In Pakistan, water is free, so no attention has been given to the public in its maintenance. In both print and electronic media, awareness is needed for water conservation. Also, as it is done in many countries, it is possible to come up with a price system for water to eliminate large amounts of waste at household level and at commercial level.
In short, water shortages and air pollution are the biggest threats to the world's sixth-largest country, Pakistan. The government needs to urgently and seriously monitor water conservation and reduce water pollution to avoid adverse effects in the form of drought, famine, inward migration, and loss of biodiversity.