Student Name: Usama Shakeel, College of Agriculture, UoS
Sign by: Dr. Yassin, Department of Agriculture Extension,
College of Agriculture, UoS
Common name: Wheat گندم
Family: Poaceae (sub-family: Pooideae)
Genus: Triticeae L
Wheat is the most consuming crop all over the world; it is cereal grains, the use as a staple food. Now as the world population increases day by day, food consumption also increases, therefore agricultural scientists improving the quality and quantity of every single crop and also increase the types of crops by genetically changes according to their environment. Now a day, hundreds of wheat types are introduced and consumes at major food in different areas of the world. Wheat plant height is mainly 0.7m to 1.7m tall and consists of Root, Leaves, Spikes, Stem and Tillers, and Grains.
Wheat is cultivated all over the world; according to a survey about more than 218,000,000 hectares per year, wheat is grown. In Pakistan, about 25.3 million metric ton wheat is grown per year and it can be increased by sowing the wheat on time, well land preparation, crop rotation, etc. In Pakistan, about 80% of farmers cultivate wheat. This crop adds 40% in total agriculture output and has a 10% value add in the agriculture of Pakistan. In 2016 the wheat has 2.23?dition in gross domestic production (GDP). About 85% of wheat in Pakistan is cultivated through water irrigation. As Pakistan is developing country wheat is uses as a primary food.
The wheat growing season in Pakistan is mainly two: The first season of wheat is Kharif: sowing time is from April to June and harvest time October to December and the second season is Rabi: which sowing is October to December and harvest time is April to May. In the first third week of November, the temperature reaches an optimum position (22-23C) which is an excellent time for germination of wheat. Mainly wheat needs 4-6 irrigations depending on soil type, rainfall, cultivar, and other environmental factors. Wheat has two critical stages in irrigation: the first period from the development of adventitious roots to start of trilling and the second period from the anthesis to the milk stage. First irrigation should be given from 8 to 12 days after sowing and another irrigation period should according to plant development and plant need, and water availability. The harvesting period starts after the complete maturity of the crop, complete loss of green color is the best indication of wheat maturity. Wheat stored as complete dry grain, in well clean store also protected by insects and rats, attack
Wheat provides multiple inessential nutrients like proteins, Mg, P, and niacin. Wheat provides 327 kilocalories of food energy per 100g which is a highly rich source. Wheat is 13% Water, 71?rbohydrates, 1.5?t, 12.2% fiber and 0.41% sugar.
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