Name: Fahad Mehmood
Assigned by: Muhammad Yaseen, College of Agriculture,
University of Sargodha
Every good food quality has suitable food and its security process. According to the estimations of the united nation ‘department of economics and social affairs, by the year 2030 world has to produce 8.5 billion people food.
In Pakistan, horticulture is a very subsector that contributes to the 12% GDP of Pakistan. In addition to agronomy crops, fruit and vegetable are cultivated on a commercial scale and help to full fill the dietary requirement of an increasing population. These are mainly high and rich in protein and fiber, vitamin, etc. about more than 30 types of vegetables are grown in Pakistan on a commercial scale. Some on them I am discussing like melon, cucumber, carrot, spinach, tomato, onion, eggplant, okra, pumpkin, melon water, bottle ground are used as vegetable food or as raw uses.
We are very low in the combustion of vegetable grafting; we gave it to increases from 100 capita per day to 400 capita per day. Same as we need about 250g leafy vegetables and 150 g root vegetables to full fill our nutrient of body.
Constraints in vegetable production of Pakistan:
Among the different types of factors of decreasing yield, there are some biotic factors like diseases and pest attacks. Vegetables have issues of many diseases, like root rot of eggplant, tomato, cucumber, and watermelon, etc. These biotic factors can control and help to increases economic status.
In the abiotic, abiotic refer to sunlight, weather, high and low temperature, and all environmental factors which is a part of the environment or affecting the environment. Land salty area, water storage problem, climate changes these entire factors are issues and become more dangerous day by day in Pakistan.
Every plant grows from seed is the basis of plant generation. As seed (the ability of input) is the whole crop with germinated good and as well as its yield production also increases in Pakistan country, due to low seed quality and potential of local cultivators, loss of quality and its suitable ability loss. The main reason is the higher price of fungi sides and pesticides in which local, short, and poor farmers cannot afford loan polices taxes.
As we know, heavy metal like Cu, Cr, Cd, Ni, Co, Ar, and Hg is harmful to human being and other consumers. In Pakistan, there is an urban and peri-urban area where heavy metal has main existed, and when we grow crops, it also destroys our crop as well as dangerous for our health too. The high risk for consumers especially causes lungs problem.
In vegetable grafting and vegetable cultivation, Pakistan faces many problems, companies developing and used the hybrid seed to increases yield. Selection and breeding of vegetable cultivar used mainly now plastic tunnel. In advanced countries, they are using many fungi and advances technology to increases the production level and adopted every opportunity which came.
History of vegetable grafting: In the past, Grafting practices but not with a lot of technologies like happening nowadays. Commercially grafting is starting in the 20th century now in the whole world and with full techniques and technologies. In 1992s, the first scientifically grafting was starting on watermelon to control soil boron diseases, is doing at the commercial many international companies inventing money on it and buying more profits.
Nowadays, many countries are well working on the production of graft transplants. There are many types such as rootstock, scion cultivars, plantlet production, grafting production, healing of graft union, acclimatization of graft transplants.
Now I put some steps to show how we have done the production of graft transplants. First of all, we a grafted plant transplant sown a rootstock of cultivator and scion into seedling try to grow a plantlet. So this purpose, like hole insertion grafting, tongue grafting, splice grafting, cleft grafting, and pin grafting. Nowadays, In the USA, Korea, Netherland¸ Spain, and Japan and robot grafting are mostly used and popular. It is necessary for the caring of graft transplant that to get a higher ratio of graft loss of moisture from the scion may lead toward the wiling and the failure of the graft union. Thus, during the first 48h after grafting, the transplant needs 95% of humidity and the temperature at 27C to 28C. We use a different method to control the environment like a healing chamber enhance to 95% success of graft union.
AS we now population increases by the day, more food to recover our consumption. There are many benefits of vegetable grafting like, not only increases and improves yield, crop, and product quality but also increases the enhance the plant vigor and tolerance and reaction against low and high temperature.it also help to decrease diseases in plant generation. Grafting benefit is that decrease the use of pesticides and other increases yield sprays. Grafting helps the plant power and its potential against the different reactions of disease.
Grafting also helps to increase the number of new yields, which is more in nutrition, taste color also changes or not depends on genetically happen.
Many countries like UCA, China, Korea, Span, Italy, the Netherland, and India on increases in vegetable production because it is the best source of trades. About 90 % of the world use vegetable at daily consumption. So it is the best source of the increasing economic status of every country. In Pakistan, there is no such awareness of vegetable grafting, focus on growing the best fruit they have also want about vegetables as a good source of trades. A farmer has a low potential of and sails because they do not so much profit. Pakistan needs to start a campaign about vegetable graft and telling the benefit of it, so it also really helps to increase our economic source and status.
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